The collection and delivery of scrap metal is an idea that has long been known, but has not lost its relevance. And today, if you wish, you can make good money on the delivery of scrap metal to collection points.
A lot of things around us, which have long turned into rubbish that occupies the living space and the environment around us, are made of metals, or have them in their composition. Such garbage can be turned into an additional source of income, the amount of which will largely be determined by the degree of your involvement in this business.
In addition, this activity has other benefits. By handing over scrap metal, you rid the environment of waste, in some cases hazardous waste, and the recycling of metal helps save the planet’s resources. After all, the extraction of iron ores is quite expensive and requires high-tech equipment.
In the end, the search and collection of scrap metal is a rather exciting process and for many it becomes, if not a matter of life, then a favorite hobby that brings good additional income.
Types of accepted metals
Usually there are three main types of scrap metal: ferrous metals, non-ferrous metals and stainless steel.
1. Ferrous metals
Ferrous metals are iron and iron-based alloys – steel and cast iron. Steel and cast iron are formed by combining iron and carbon, the difference in them is only in the amount of carbon. If its share is higher than 2.14%, then cast iron comes out, if it is lower, steel is obtained. To improve the properties of the material, other elements are added to them, such as copper, nickel and chromium.
Ferrous metal waste is cheaper (10-30 rubles per kilogram) than stainless steel or non-ferrous metal, so it is profitable to sell ferrous metal in large quantities, for example, tons. The low price is explained by the prevalence and popularity of the material. Ferrous metal is used both in industry and in everyday life, so finding and collecting it in large volumes is quite simple.
According to the presence of alloying elements, which serve to improve chemical properties, ferrous metals are divided into carbon (A) and alloying (B). In total, there are 28 types of metal qualities and 67 groups, determined by the content of alloying elements. Metal quality indicators are indicated by numbers: numbers from 1 to 16 are used for steel, from 17 to 24 – for cast iron, from 25 to 28 – for non-class categories.
Here are just some especially popular categories of ferrous metal according to GOST 2787-75:
- 3A is steel lumpy scrap metal, with parameters not more than 1.5×0.5×0.5 meters, weighing no more than 600 kg and not less than 1 kg. For example, pipes with a diameter greater than 150mm and a thickness of at least 4mm. Pipes are sawn lengthwise or flattened;
- 5A – oversized pieces of waste;
- 12A – household and industrial scrap metal in packages, sorted and other waste.
- 17A – waste from the production of iron and scrap, weighing up to 20 kg.
- 19A – waste from the production of pig iron No. 3 with a high fluorine content.
- 20A – oversized cast iron waste without size and weight requirements.
- 22A – cast iron scrap metal of category No. 3.
2. Stainless steel
Stainless steel is priced much higher than scrap iron or other ferrous metal. It is quite difficult to visually identify stainless steel, as it looks like carbon steel. The use of a magnet may also not help, since the percentage of nickel, chromium and other components varies greatly. Therefore, the proposed stainless steel before delivery should be put aside in a separate place in order to find out its composition later.
The most expensive stainless steel will be the steel with the highest chromium and nickel content. They will help to accurately determine the chemical composition at the reception point, for this they use spectrometers.
Prices for stainless steel fluctuate in the range of 20-160 rubles per kilogram. Several factors affect the cost:
- volume – the larger it is, the higher the purchase price;
- metal condition;
- type of alloy – distinguish between chromium (ferritic), austenitic, martensitic, combined stainless steel.
- product shape (naturally, lump and sheet metal will cost more than chips
Types of stainless steel:
- Chrome (ferritic). It contains about 20% chromium, is resistant to contact with aggressive substances. Chromium steel is used in the automotive industry, in the manufacture of heating and refrigeration systems, and in chemical enterprises.
- Austenitic . The most popular type of stainless steel, this alloy is used almost everywhere. Austenitic steel includes chromium and nickel, this alloy is strong and light.
- Martensitic . Martensitic steels have a high content of chromium and carbon, nickel, tungsten, vanadium and molybdenum are also included in small amounts. Martensitic steel is heat-resistant and easily tolerates low temperatures.
- Combined . The most innovative type, combining the properties of the types described above, for example, austenitic-ferritic and austenitic-martensitic steels. Such types of steel are manufactured individually depending on the needs of a particular customer.
3. Non-ferrous metal
Non-ferrous metals have always cost and will cost more than ferrous ones. This is explained by the scope of their application and properties. Non-ferrous metals have a low specific gravity, flexibility, thermal conductivity and other valuable characteristics.
Non-ferrous metals include copper, bronze, aluminum, lead, brass, zinc, titanium, and tin.
- aluminum . Aluminum is found in cables and electrical engineering, and is often used to make kitchen utensils and beverage cans.
- Copper . Often used in electrical engineering, found in cables, radiators, pipes.
- Bronze . used for the production of sanitary ware, various gears of decor elements.
- Brass . It can be used in the manufacture of sanitary ware, musical instruments.
- Zinc . Often found in the construction industry, zinc is used to produce fasteners, bolts and nuts, tools, batteries.
- Lead . Contained in batteries, used for lining laboratories to absorb radioactive radiation.
- Tin . Rarely found in its pure form, as natural reserves of tin are depleted. It is used to make bronze, found together with lead in solders used to connect elements in electronic circuits, found in antiques and antiques.
- Titan . It is used in the food, oil and electrical industries, for the production of surgical instruments and other things.
The type of metal can be determined primarily by visual qualities and magnetic properties. Unlike ferrous metal, all non-ferrous metals are not magnetic. Copper can be identified by a reddish tint, bronze and brass are distinguished by a yellowish and golden color, aluminum is a silvery metal, light in weight, and highly ductile. Accurate data and analysis of the alloy can be obtained at scrap metal collection points.
In fact, copper and brass are rated the highest at collection points. Although some metals are more expensive than copper scrap (for example, tin), in practice they are extremely rare in their pure form.
Who to sell scrap metal to?
You can donate scrap metal to different places and with different benefits, a lot depends not only on the quality, type and condition of the metal, but also on your ability to deliver it, prepare it, have time, etc.
- Reception points. There are large metal depots and smaller acceptances. If you collect large volumes of metal, then it makes no sense to hand it over to resellers – you only need to consider this option. You can bring scrap on your own, or order services for its removal. Delivery terms and prices vary from place to place.
- Resellers . As a rule, resellers do not have stationary collection points, they travel around rural and suburban areas with loudspeakers or go home and collect old household appliances and metal from the population at a fairly low price, in order to then hand it all over to collection points. Retirees usually become clients of resellers.
- Small buyers . In small towns there are people who buy everything in a row. Most often they work semi-legally, their prices are average, but they can accept waste paper, film, and plastic.
What is most often sold for scrap?
What is usually scrapped? Naturally, ferrous metal is sold much more often and in much larger volumes for objective reasons than non-ferrous metal, but the origin of this scrap is completely different. It can be:
- old cars and trucks, special equipment, spare parts and machine components;
- agricultural machinery, including all components and parts, as well as auxiliary mechanisms and trailers;
- former water equipment – boats, boats and other small vessels and their components and spare parts.
- motorcycles, mopeds, bicycles and their parts;
- tools – construction, metalwork, assembly;
- electrical goods and household appliances, their cases and used spare parts;
- all kinds of containers made of steel and cast iron – bathtubs, barrels, tanks;
- kitchen utensils, knives, hardware;
- metal construction debris, trimmings, fragments, shavings;
- haberdashery and art products;
- accessories for sports, fishing, hunting, etc.